Traditional file server may have outlived it’s usefulness for an increasing number of organizations in past years. Traditionally these file servers were designed in an era where typically all employees were sitting in one location and remote workers / road warriors were quite rare and even then only files they created were office documents (word, excel, powerpoint, etc). However time has changed and now it’s new normal that organizations have employees all over the globe and also IoT (Internet of Things) has changed landscape very much; they generate far more data than normal users ever will and this data must be kept in safe location since data is now the main asset of many organizations and normal file servers are not enough to meet the requirements of the modern data center anymore.
So we got an object storage to solve issues but first you need to understand what is an object storage and how it differs from traditional file servers.
So what is an object storage?
For years data was typically stored in a POSIX file system (or databases but let’s focus on file services here) where data is organized in volumes, folders/directories and sub-folders/sub-directories. Data written to file system contains two actual pieces; the data written to file system itself and also metadata which in POSIX file systems is typically simple and includes only information about creation date, change date, etc. However object storages work a bit differently.
Object storage is also used to store data but unlike POSIX file systems, an object storage system gives each object unique id, rather than name, which is managed in flat index instead of folders. In POSIX file systems applications access files based on directory and filenames but in object storage they access files (or objects here) by providing an unique object id to fetch/re-write information. Because of this flat architecture object storage provides much greater scalability and faster access to much higher quantity of files compared most traditional POSIX based file servers. Flat architecture enables also much richer medata information for actual data since most object storage systems allow much broader set of information stored per object than traditional POSIX file system. You can store all the same information (creation date, change date, etc) but also add additional information like expiration dates, protection requirements, information for application what type of file is, what kind of information it contains etc.
So in general object storages are designed to handle an massive amount of data; it can be data stored in large objects like video/images/audio or very billions of very small objects containing IoT device information like sensor data. Typical object storage can scale to very big and this raises a question. How we can backup the data stored in object storages?
Why object storage is not that easy to backup?
Traditionally object storage solutions are considered when you have massive amounts of data like petabytes of data and/or billions of objects (files). This kind of platform challenges your traditional enterprise backup solution. Think about it while. If you need to backup all changed objects how long it will take for enterprise backup server to lookup which object has been changed and then fetch them from storage and put them on disk and/or tape. With large scale environments this slowly becomes just impossible. You need to implement other kind of solutions.
From backups to data protection
First step here is to change our minds from backups to data protection. Backup is just a method to protect your data, isn’t it? When we understand this we can start thinking how we can protect our data in object storage environments. There is always the traditional way to protect it, but let’s think how object storage environments are protected in real life.
Object Storage Systems tend to have ability to have versioning built in. What this is is just a method to save old version of object in case of change or delete. So even when user deletes objects they are not removed from system in real life but just marked as deleted. When we combine this to multisite solutions we actually have built in data protection solution capable to protect your valuable data. However we need to have also smart information lifecycle management in our object storage to be able to actually remove deleted objects when our ILM rules says so. Like after ‘deleting’ (marking object deleted) we would still keep last version for 5 years and after that we will remove it from system.
This kind of approach has one limitation you must keep in your mind what comes to data durability. What typical data protection systems do not protect against is bit rot – the concept of magnetic degradation over time. Magnetic storage degrades over time and this is not a matter if the data will be corrupted but rather it is when it will. The good thing here is that enterprise ready object storage solution should have methods to prevent this since should have methods to monitor and repair the affects of magnetic degradation with use of unique identifier for each object that is the result of some type of algorithm (e.g. SHA-256) being run against the contents of the object. By re-running the algorithm against an object and comparing it against its unique identifier, the software makes sure that no bit rot corrupts the file.
There is of course still one issue which must be solved different way – nasty admin. There is always possibility that storage admin of object storage solution just deletes whole system. But let’s think this in future post coming later this spring!